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Towards a Sustainable Future: Key Issues at COP28 to Combat Climate Change

COP28 is the 28th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The UNFCCC is an international agreement that aims to address climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting adaptation to the inevitable impacts of climate change. COPs are annual meetings where signatory countries come together to discuss and negotiate concrete measures to achieve the goals of the UNFCCC.

Each COP is numbered chronologically, and COP28 would be the 28th edition of this conference series. These events are crucial in shaping global climate change policies, and they attract the attention of governments, non-governmental organizations, businesses and the general public around the world.

Katla volcano

Katla last erupted in 1918; since 920 AD, only 20 eruptions have been recorded. 

Katla is a volcano located in Iceland, renowned for being one of the most active in the country.

Location: Katla Volcano lies beneath the Mýrdalsjökull Glacier in southern Iceland. It is located near the famous Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

Activity: Katla is known for its large explosive eruptions which can have significant impacts on the local and even global climate. Historical eruptions of Katla have often been associated with glacial melt, causing glacial floods (jökulhlaups).

Volcanic eruptions, although they can have temporary effects on climate, have a relatively limited influence on long-term climate change. Particles emitted by volcanoes can cause the Earth to temporarily cool, creating a phenomenon called “volcanic winter.” However, greenhouse gas emissions from volcanoes are generally much lower than those resulting from human activities.

Ilulissat Icefjord

The icefjord Located on the west coast of Greenland, 250 km north of the Arctic Circle

lulissat Ice Fjord is the maritime mouth of Sermeq Kujalleq, one of the rare glaciers through which the ice of the Greenland ice sheet reaches the sea. Sermeq Kujalleq is one of the fastest and most active glaciers in the world.

Global warming is the phenomenon of long-term increase in the average temperatures of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is mainly due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), in the atmosphere. These gases help trap heat from the sun, creating a greenhouse effect and increasing the planet’s overall temperature.

Melting ice is one of the major impacts of global warming. Higher temperatures are causing glaciers, ice caps and sea ice to melt, contributing to sea level rise.

The fight against global warming involves reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adopting clean and sustainable energy, and adapting to inevitable changes. International agreements such as the Paris Agreement aim to mitigate climate change by limiting global temperature rise.